BATS ARE VERY VERY VERY IMPORTANT ANIMALS TO PLANET EARTH !!!!!
BATS ARE VERY DIVERSE !!
BATS ARE VERY FASCINATING !!
BATS ARE MAMMALS
BATS ARE NOT RODENTS !
THERE ARE MORE THAN 1,100 KNOWN SPECIES OF BATS IN THE WORLD !!
BATS ARE THE 2nd LARGEST GROUP OF MAMMALS .. ( rodents are the largest group of mammals )
bats represent more than 22 % of mammals on planet Earth !!!
bats are the most common mammals of the rain forests of planet Earth !!!
BATS ARE WARM-BLOODED .. WITH CONSTANT BODY TEMPERATURES
bats have fur
BATS GIVE BIRTH TO LIVE BABIES
bats nurse their babies with their own milk
bats are mostly nocturnal flying mammals
with elongated forelimbs and digits
that are covered by a thin membrane of skin
extending to hind back legs
and .. sometimes to the tail
BATS ARE THE ONLY MAMMAL CAPABLE OF TRUE AND SUSTAINED FLIGHT !!!
MOST BATS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN RATHER SMALL WITH DELICATE BONES
IT IS BELIEVED THAT BATS ARE NOCTURNAL MAMMALS THAT FLY AT NIGHT BECAUSE
most insects travel about at night ..
SOME BAT CAVES ARE THE MOST PERMANENT HOMES
OF ANY ANIMAL ON PLANET EARTH ! ! !
some caves have been home to generation after generation after
generation of bats ..
CONTINUOUSLY INHABITED .. NON-STOP .. FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
BATS ARE .. SHY .. TIMID .. GENTLE ..
some bats usually live alone and are solitary
SOME BATS LIVE IN GROUPS AND ARE COLONIAL
some bats migrate to warm areas in the winter
SOME BATS DO NOT LEAVE THEIR TERRITORIES AND HIBERNATE IN THE WINTER
ABOUT 66 % OF ALL BAT SPECIES EAT INSECTS
about 32 % of all bat species eat fruit
ABOUT 1 % OF ALL BAT SPECIES EAT FISH .. MICE .. FROGS .. OR OTHER SMALL VERTEBRAE
about 1/3 of 1 % of all bat species eat blood
BATS LIVE ALL OVER THE WORLD EXCEPT THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA
bats live in all types of habitats except extremely hot deserts
MOST BATS LIVE IN THE TROPICS .. WHERE FOOD IS ABUNDANT
bats in tropics are most often .. bright bright colors
BATS IN COLDER AREAS ARE MOST OFTEN .. BLACK BROWN GREY
BATS THAT LIVE IN MORE OPEN HABITATS
generally have bright fur colors and patterns and markings .. yellow .. red .. white .. silver .. even orange !!!
BATS THAT LIVE IN MORE DARK SHELTERED AREAS
generally have more drab fur colors .. black .. gray .. brown
THERE IS A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF VARIATION IN APPEARANCE OF THE WORLD'S BAT SPECIES !!!
face and head features vary greatly ..
SOME HAVE FEATURES LIKE ..
SOME FACES ARE ..
SOME FACES HAVE ..
THESE FACIAL VARIATIONS SERVE LOTS OF FUNCTIONS ..
help them to make and resonate echolocation calls
help them move and navigate in darkness
help males to attract females
45 SPECIES OF BAT LIVE IN NORTH AMERICA
many NORTH AMERICAN BAT SPECIES
have about a 12 inch wingspan
weigh about 1/6 - 2/3 of an ounce !!!
THERE ARE 2 SUB ORDERS OF BATS
live only in .. ASIA .. AFRICA .. AUSTRALIA .. INDIA
most are BIG bats
most eat fruit
FLYING FOXES ARE MEGACHIROPTERANS
live in .. INDIA .. AUSTRALIA .. ASIA
ARE LARGEST BATS IN THE WORLD !
live all over the world
most are LITTLE bats
eat mostly insects
ARE SMALLEST BATS IN THE WORLD !
ALL BATS LIVING IN NORTH AMERICA ARE MICROCHIROPTERANS
BATS ARE EITHER
MEGACHIROPTERANS also called MEGABATS
MICROCHIROPTERANS also called MICROBATS
THE MEGABATS HAVE 1 FAMILY OF ABOUT 175 SPECIES
THE MICROBATS HAVE 17 FAMILIES OF ABOUT 930 SPECIES
the world's smallest known mammal is a bat !!!
THE SMALLEST KNOW BAT IN THE WORLD IS ..
BUMBLE - BEE BAT
weighs .07 of an ounce
less than an AMERICAN penny
1 inch long
wingspan is 6 inches wide
( not as wide as a standard pencil )
THE LARGEST KNOWN BAT IS A FLYING FOX
from PAKISTAN .. INDIA .. BURMA
weighs between 2 - 3 pounds
( weight of a heavy book )
wingspan is a bit over 6 feet wide
BRACKEN CAVE IN .. TEXAS UNITED STATES
where a colony of MEXICAN FREE-TAILED BATS lives
more than 20 MILLION individuals residing there ! ! !
LARGEST COLONY OF MAMMALS IN THE WORLD ! ! !
these amazing animals eat 200 TONS of insects each night !!!
AMAZING BLACK AND WHITE COLOR PATTERN
SPOTTED BATS ARE PIEBALD ANIMALS
piebald is black and white coloration
spotted bats have a SPOTTED coloration - 3 spots in total on back
ONE LARGE WHITE SPOT ON EACH SHOULDER
ONE LARGE SPOT ON THE LOWER PART OF BACK
HAVE BRIGHT WHITE FUR AT THE BASE OF EACH EAR
BIOLOGISTS ARE NOT SURE WHY THE BEAUTIFUL SPOTTED BAT IS BLACK AND WHITE
it is believed they are black and white so they will be camouflaged in their rocky habitat
CAMOUFLAGE HELPS THEM BLEND IN WITH THEIR SURROUNDINGS AND
TO HIDE THEM FROM POSSIBLE PREDATORS
in summer spotted bats more noticeable than in winter ..
THIS HELPS THEM BE MORE VISIBLE TO EACH OTHER DURING TIME OF MATING ..
being more visible to each other helps to not waste any energy trying to find each other ! !!
SPOTTED BATS ARE ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL OF ALL BATS OF THE WORLD !
FACES LOOK LIKE DOGS !!! THEY ARE SO SO SO CUTE !!! SUPER CUTE !!!
LARGE BATS !
4.2 - 4.9 inches tall .. body and head height
ears are almost as long as bodies !!!
wingspan is 13 - 15 inches
weight .. .4 - .8 of an ounce
HAVE LIGHTWEIGHT BODIES .. NOT DENSE AND HEAVY
less weight means easier flying
LONG AND VERY SILKY
HAVE FANTASTIC VISION !
see great in daylight .. just as other mammals do !
see much much much better at night than many other mammals
MUCH MUCH BETTER THAN HUMANS !!!
BIG EARED BAT
large large ears for astounding hearing .. HAVE SUPER AMAZING EXCELLENT HEARING !
HAVE THE LARGEST EARS OF ANY BAT IN NORTH AMERICA !!!
most insect eating bats have really big ears
MOST BATS WITH BIG BIG EARS LIVE IN WILD AREAS AND WESTERN DESERTS OF THE UNITED STATES
special grooves inside spotted bat ears help direct sounds to the inside part of their ears
SPOTTED BATS HAVE HUGE HUGE EARS TO HEAR QUIET QUIET QUIET MOTHS !!!
ALL MAMMALS HAVE HAIRS INSIDE THEIR EARS
these hairs help with hearing
ALL MAMMALS LOOSE SOME OF THESE IMPORTANT HAIRS AS THEY AGE
spotted bats loose these hairs also
SPOTTED BATS REGENERATE CELLS WITHIN THEIR EARS AND GROW NEW HAIRS !!!
SPOTTED BAT'S HEARING STAYS AWESOME FOR THEIR ENTIRE LIVES !!!
WHEN SPOTTED BATS REST OR SLEEP ..
they fold their ears back against their backs
WHEN THEY BECOME ALERT AND ARE READY TO FLY .. THEIR EARS STAND RIGHT UP ! ! !
INSECT EATING BAT EARS ARE OFTEN .. LARGER .. LONGER .. MORE POINTED
INSECT EATING BATS NEED TO GATHER INFORMATION FROM THEIR PREY AS THEY HUNT
FRUIT EATING BAT EARS ARE OFTEN .. SMALLER .. SHORTER .. MORE ROUNDED
FRUIT EATING BATS DO NOT HAVE TO LISTEN FOR THEIR FOOD
PLAIN NOSED BATS
are plain nosed bats because do not have all sorts of lumps bumps or facial variations
HAVE FANTASTIC FANTASTIC SENSE OF SMELL ! ! !
INCREDIBLY SHARP SHARP SHARP TEETH
small tiny teeth
USE SHARP TEETH TO CRUNCH AND CHEW MOTH FOOD
INTO A SOUPY SOFT MASS BEFORE SWALLOWING !
have 2 sets of teeth
deciduous and permanent
4 KINDS OF TEETH ..
incisors .. canines .. premolars .. molars
22 DECIDUOUS TEETH
also called milk teeth or baby teeth
BABY TEETH ARE HOOKED SPICULES
these hooks allow the spotted bat baby to firmly attach to mom's nursing nipples
THESE HOOKS ALLOW THE BABY TO HOLD ONTO MOM
EVEN IF SHE IS FLYING ! ! !
looses baby teeth very quickly
permanent teeth come in very early in the development of the little bat !
38 ADULT TEETH
SPOTTED BATS HAVE REALLY REALLY REALLY STRONG JAWS !!!!
ALL SOUNDS MADE IN LARYNX AND THEN SENT OUT THROUGH MOUTH
MAKE 2 TYPES OF SOUNDS
ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF THEIR BODIES HAVE TOUCH SENSITIVE
stiff hairs .. whiskers .. bristles
these touch sensitive vibrassae receptors help the spotted bats to catch food
WHISKERS ARE LOCATED AROUND THE SPOTTED BATS NOSE AND MOUTH
BRISTLES ARE LOCATED ON THE SPOTTED BATS FEET
STIFF HAIRS ARE LOCATED ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE SPOTTED BATS WINGS
SKELETON IS SIMILAR TO OTHER MAMMALS
very very similar to humans !!!
HAVE HANDS WITH FINGERS
HAVE FEET WITH TOES
super light bones
DO NOT HAVE HOLLOW BONES LIKE BIRDS
have marrow filled bones like humans !
HAVE SUPER FLEXIBLE NECKS !!!
vertebrae and muscles are really movable
WHILE HANGING UPSIDE DOWN ..
CAN LOOK STRAIGHT AHEAD
AND THEN TURN HEAD TO LEFT OR RIGHT
AND END UP LOOKING DIRECTLY BEHIND
CAN ROLL NECK AND LOOK IN ANY DIRECTION NEEDED
most mammals including giraffes and bats
have the same number of vertebrae in their necks !
GIRAFFES HAVE 7 NECK VERTEBRAE
SPOTTED BATS HAVE 7 NECK VERTEBRAE
LEGS BEND BACKWARD ..
they are turned at the pelvis outward .. so their knees face outward and
a bit towards the back ..
this helps them to hang upside down
SPOTTED BATS HAVE 5 TOES ON EACH OF THEIR 2 FEET
toes are also called digits
long .. very strong
EACH TOE HAS CLAW
long .. curved .. very strong .. like a type of hook
CAN HANG FROM
rock ledges .. tiny crevices in rock walls
USE AMAZING TOE CLAWS FOR ALL SORTS OF ACTIVITIES ..
to climb around roosts .. using toe claws and thumbs together on all fours
TO CLEAN AND COMB FUR
TO CLEAN EYES
TO CLING UPSIDE DOWN AND .. rest .. sleep .. hibernate
TOE CLAW GRIP IS SO STRONG .. SO POWERFUL ..
that they can hang by one foot while they clean themselves with the other foot
TOES ARE IN DIGITAL LOCK WHEN HANGING
digital lock is when toe digits lock in place
grip is so strong .. stays even during sleep
does not relax and open
digital lock keeps them from falling while they sleep !
DIGEST FOOD EXTREMELY EXTREMELY FAST !!
digest food more quickly than most other animals on planet Earth !
THE AMAZING FAST DIGESTION HELPS THEM TO NOT HAVE TO CARRY A LOT OF WEIGHT
WHILE FLYING FROM UNDIGESTED FOOD !!!
SPOTTED BAT METABOLISM IS QUITE UNUSUAL
METABOLISM OF ALL BAT SPECIES IS NOT LIKE OTHER MAMMALS
breathing .. heartbeat .. body temperature
ALL 3 VARY QUITE A LOT
depending on what the bat is doing
depending on temperature of where bat is
SOMETIMES TEMPERATURE OF RESTING BATS IS EXACTLY TEMPERATURE OF SURROUNDINGS
SPECIAL VALVES IN VEINS PREVENT ACCUMULATION OF BLOOD IN HEAD
( otherwise blood would accumulate from roosting upside down )
USE THEIR TAIL
to help make sudden turns
( to change direction suddenly )
USE THEIR TAIL MEMBRANE
as a brake when flying
as a food catching pouch
THE AREA BETWEEN THE SPOTTED BAT'S LEG .. FOOT AND TAIL
IS CALLED THE CALCAR
EVERY BAT SPECIES WINGS ARE DIFFERENT
the shape thickness and length of species wings are determined by diet of that species
flying foxes have long long wings ..
these long wings help flying foxes to fly long distances in the open
to locate fruits
SPOTTED BATS WINGS DO NOT HAVE FUR
when spotted bats wings are stretched out .. they are 3 - 4 times length of body
greyish pink color
SPOTTED BATS WINGS ARE EXTREMELY SENSITIVE
their wings collect information about their surroundings
UNDERSIDES OF WINGS HAVE MANY TINY HAIRLIKE TOUCH RECEPTORS THAT HELP TO DETECT
the warmth of an insect body
THESE HAIRS DETECT AT ABOUT 6 INCHES AWAY FROM OBJECT WOW !!!
the bones of the arms and hands of spotted bats are the foundation of wings
UPPER ARM BONE IS SHORT
2 lower arm bones are elongated ( longer )
FINGER BONES ARE VERY ELONGATED
thumb is quite short
THUMB IS CLAW BONE AT TOP OF WING
4 long fingers and 1 short thumb are very very flexible !
PRIMARY FLIGHT MUSCLES .. ON .. CHESTS .. BACKS .. SHOULDERS
skin membrane VERY muscular
muscles of wings do NOT power flight
LESS ENERGY USED TO FLY BY USING MUSCLES ON BODY AND NOT ON WINGS !!!
wings are 2 layers of skin membrane over the bones of .. arms .. hands .. fingers
SKIN MEMBRANE CONNECTS WINGS TO .. BODY .. LEGS .. TAIL
spotted bats wings very thin .. almost see through
wings are ..
smooth .. flexible .. elastic ..
WINGS ARE very very very strong .. extremely tough ! ! !
if they were not they would be torn by thorns and twigs !
WHEN CLOSE THEIR WINGS ..
the membrane muscles squeeze up and contract
the skin pulls in close
the skin in not loose
WINGS ARE LIKE WEBBED HANDS
move their wings like humans move fingers
CAN CHANGE SHAPE OF WINGS EXTREMELY QUICK !!!
when flying can change direction extremely fast !!!
grab with wings .. WOW !!!! ( this is an amazing site .. their wings are even better than human hands ! )
flip into tail membrane
scoop into mouth !!!! WOW !! WOW !!
WHEN READY TO FLY ..
launch from tree perch or cave roost by releasing grip with toes
head is already down towards ground
then open wings ..
WHEN THEY FLY .. pull themselves through the air ..
the movement of their wings is like human swimming breast stroke ..
NOT like birds flapping wings
FOR FLIGHT TO BE POSSIBLE ..
streamlined body is necessary
body has to be kept above ground .. need lift
body has to propel through air .. need thrust
both lift and propulsion achieved on down stroke of wings ..
air moves faster over top of wings than on underside of wings
increase lift by increasing speed of air over top of wing
this is done by moving wings faster !!!
SPOTTED BATS CAN FLY AS FAST AS 60 MILES PER HOUR !!!
can fly as high as 30 - 50 feet above the ground
( above the pine tree tops where they live and hunt )
SPOTTED BATS HAVE A DIRECT RAPID FLIGHT PATTERN !!
WHEN SPOTTED BATS REST OR SLEEP THEY FOLD THEIR WINGS OVER AND AROUND THEIR BODIES
like a warm insulating blanket !!!
SPOTTED BATS HAVE SMALL LEGS AND SMALL PELVIS ..
creates streamlined body ..
legs used for flying more than walking
BATS LIVE VERY LONG LIVES !
BIOLOGISTS ARE NOT SURE HOW LONG THE ELUSIVE SPOTTED BAT LIVES
IT IS BELIEVED THAT THEY MAY LIVE UP TO 30 YEARS
WHERE IN THE WORLD
SPOTTED BATS ARE NATIVE TO NORTH AMERICA
THE RANGE OF THE SPOTTED BAT IS FROM
through the western UNITED STATES
south into CENTRAL AMERICA
SPOTTED BATS LIVE IN A WIDE RANGE OF HABITATS
MOST OFTEN LIVE IN ..
rough .. rocky .. semi-arid .. arid .. high cliffs .. canyons .. ponderosa pine forests ..
woodlands .. scrub .. open desert
THEIR HABITAT HAS TO BE CLOSE TO WATER
spotted bats use all sorts of methods to gather information and make determinations
ALONG WITH THEIR MEMORIES .. SPOTTED BATS USE VISUAL and ACOUSTIC CUES
TO LOCATE SUITABLE ROOSTS
THE HOMES OF SPOTTED BATS ARE CALLED ROOSTS ..
have 3 types ..
DAY ROOSTS ARE CRACKS AND CREVICES ON HIGH CLIFFS
spotted bats leave their day roosts just as the sun is setting
return 1 hour before sunrise
NIGHT ROOSTS ARE OFTEN IN PINE TREES
mostly used for eating
during winter spotted bats may get together in hibernation clusters
clusters may consist of spotted bats from different areas that may be several miles apart
clusters may consist of more species of bat than just spotted bats
WHEN SOLITARY-ISH SPOTTED BATS CLUSTER FOR WINTER HIBERNATION
they do not get too too close to each other .. just next to each other
CAVE TEMPERATURES ARE QUITE STEADY AND CONSTANT
cave temperatures very rarely drop down to freezing
cave temperatures usually remain .. 40 - 48 degrees Fahrenheit
VERY LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE WINTER HABITS OF THE SPOTTED BATS
it is not known for sure if spotted bats hibernate for the entire year
or .. hibernate for brief intervals
or .. if they migrate a bit
spotted bats at high elevations certainly hibernate for the longest duration
spotted bats at low to middle elevations certainly hibernate for short intervals
but may remain active periodically throughout the winter
WHEN SPOTTED BATS SLEEP OR HIBERNATE THEY ARRANGE THEIR BODIES IN A SPECIAL WAY
TO STAY WARM AND CONSERVE ENERGY
spotted bats fold their long long ears back and tuck them under as they wrap their wings around their bodies
IN THIS WAY SPOTTED BATS ARE NICE AND SNUG AND COSY AND TUCKED IN FOR REST TIME !!!!
SPOTTED BATS PREPARE FOR HIBERNATION
by entering mild torpor state during day time
IN A TORPOR STATE
metabolism rate slows down
respiratory rate drops
heart rate drops
DURING THE NIGHT TIME SPOTTED BATS CONTINUE THEIR REGULAR HUNTING AND FORAGING FOR FOOD
SPOTTED BATS PREPARE FOR WINTER HIBERNATION BY EATING LOTS AND LOTS OF FOOD
IN LATE SUMMER AND AUTUMN
the spotted bat stores surplus food as body fat
THE FAT WILL BE USED AS A SOURCE OF NUTRITION FOR THE BODY THROUGHOUT THE WINTER !
AT THE END OF WINTER HIBERNATION SPOTTED BATS ARE VERY THIN
DURING HIBERNATION ..
the body temperature of spotted bats goes from 104 degrees Fahrenheit to as low as 32 degrees Fahrenheit !
BREATHING RATE DROPS FROM ABOUT 200 BREATHS PER MINUTE TO ABOUT 23 BREATHS PER MINUTE !
heart rate slows down from 900 beats per minute to 20 beats per minute !
ALL OF THESE CHANGES HAPPEN TO DECREASE ENERGY USE
this makes it easier for spotted bats to stay alive at a time when they cannot find food ! ! !