Spotted  Bat
   
Euderma  maculatum
   

PIEBALD  BAT
BLACK  AND  WHITE  BAT
   
    SCIENTIFIC  CLASSIFICATION
    KINGDOM :              Animal
    SUB KINGDOM :     Metazoa
    PHYLUM :                Chordata
    SUB PHYLUM :       Vertebrata
    CLASS :                   Mammalia
    ORDER :                  Chiroptera
    SUB ORDER :         Microchiroptera
    FAMILY :                  Vespertilionidae
    GENUS :                  Euderma
    SPECIES :               maculatum
    ******************************************************************************************************************
    to learn about SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION ..
    go to ..
    LINNAEUS SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION page
 
" Lord, how majestic .. is the work of your fingers ..
the animals of the wild,
the birds in the sky,
and the fish in the sea ..
"
Psalm 8:1,3,7,8

    HELPFUL  INFORMATION

    BATS ARE VERY VERY VERY IMPORTANT ANIMALS TO PLANET EARTH !!!!!

    BATS ARE VERY DIVERSE  !!

    BATS ARE VERY FASCINATING !!

    BATS ARE MAMMALS  
    BATS ARE NOT RODENTS !

    THERE ARE MORE THAN 1,100 KNOWN SPECIES OF BATS IN THE WORLD  !!

    BATS ARE THE 2nd LARGEST GROUP OF MAMMALS .. ( rodents are the largest group of mammals )
    bats represent more than 22 % of mammals on planet Earth  !!!

    bats are the most common mammals of the rain forests of planet Earth !!!

    wow !!!

    BATS ARE WARM-BLOODED .. WITH CONSTANT BODY TEMPERATURES
    bats have fur
    BATS GIVE BIRTH TO LIVE BABIES
    bats nurse their babies with their own milk


    bats are mostly nocturnal flying mammals
    with elongated forelimbs and digits
    that are covered by a thin membrane of skin
    extending to hind back legs
    and .. sometimes to the tail

    BATS ARE THE ONLY MAMMAL CAPABLE OF TRUE AND SUSTAINED FLIGHT  !!!


    MOST BATS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN RATHER SMALL WITH DELICATE BONES



    IT IS BELIEVED THAT BATS ARE NOCTURNAL MAMMALS THAT FLY AT NIGHT BECAUSE

    most insects travel about at night ..




    SOME BAT CAVES ARE THE MOST PERMANENT HOMES
    OF ANY ANIMAL ON PLANET EARTH   ! ! !
    some caves have been home to generation after generation after
    generation of bats ..
    CONTINUOUSLY INHABITED .. NON-STOP .. FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS   !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


    BATS ARE .. SHY .. TIMID .. GENTLE ..

    some bats usually live alone and are solitary
    SOME BATS LIVE IN GROUPS AND ARE COLONIAL

    some bats migrate to warm areas in the winter
    SOME BATS DO NOT LEAVE THEIR TERRITORIES AND HIBERNATE IN THE WINTER

    ABOUT 66 % OF ALL BAT SPECIES EAT INSECTS
    about 32 % of all bat species eat fruit
    ABOUT 1 % OF ALL BAT SPECIES EAT FISH .. MICE .. FROGS .. OR OTHER SMALL VERTEBRAE
    about 1/3 of 1 % of all bat species eat blood  

    BATS LIVE ALL OVER THE WORLD EXCEPT THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA
    bats live in all types of habitats except extremely hot deserts
    MOST BATS LIVE IN THE TROPICS .. WHERE FOOD IS ABUNDANT
    bats in tropics are most often .. bright bright colors
    BATS IN COLDER AREAS ARE MOST OFTEN .. BLACK BROWN GREY

    BATS THAT LIVE IN MORE OPEN HABITATS
    generally have bright fur colors and patterns and markings .. yellow .. red .. white .. silver .. even orange  !!!
    BATS THAT LIVE IN MORE DARK SHELTERED AREAS
    generally have more drab fur colors .. black .. gray .. brown

    THERE IS A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF VARIATION IN APPEARANCE OF THE WORLD'S BAT SPECIES  !!!
    face and head features vary greatly ..
    SOME HAVE FEATURES LIKE ..
    puppies
    dogs
    bears
    cats
    foxes
    SOME FACES ARE ..
    flat
    pushed in
    wrinkly
    floppy
    SOME FACES HAVE ..
    skin flaps
    huge noses
    fleshy ridges
    lumps
    bumps

    THESE FACIAL VARIATIONS SERVE LOTS OF FUNCTIONS ..
    help them to make and resonate echolocation calls
    help them move and navigate in darkness
    help males to attract females


    45 SPECIES OF BAT LIVE IN NORTH AMERICA
    many NORTH AMERICAN BAT SPECIES
    have about a 12 inch wingspan
    weigh about 1/6 - 2/3 of an ounce  !!!





    THERE ARE 2 SUB ORDERS OF BATS
    megachiroptera
    microchiroptera

    MEGACHIROPTERA
    live only in .. ASIA .. AFRICA .. AUSTRALIA .. INDIA
    most are BIG bats
    most eat fruit
    FLYING FOXES ARE MEGACHIROPTERANS
    live in .. INDIA .. AUSTRALIA .. ASIA
    ARE LARGEST BATS IN THE WORLD  !

    MICROCHIROPTERA
    live all over the world
    most are LITTLE bats
    eat mostly insects
    ARE SMALLEST BATS IN THE WORLD  !




    ALL BATS LIVING IN NORTH AMERICA ARE MICROCHIROPTERANS  

    BATS ARE EITHER
    MEGACHIROPTERANS also called MEGABATS  
    or
    MICROCHIROPTERANS also called MICROBATS


    THE MEGABATS HAVE 1 FAMILY OF ABOUT 175 SPECIES

    THE MICROBATS HAVE 17 FAMILIES OF ABOUT 930 SPECIES




    the world's smallest known mammal is a bat   !!!

    THE SMALLEST KNOW BAT IN THE WORLD IS ..
    BUMBLE - BEE BAT
    from THAILAND
    weighs  .07 of an ounce
    less than an AMERICAN penny
    1 inch long
    wingspan is 6 inches wide
    ( not as wide as a standard pencil )

    THE LARGEST KNOWN BAT IS A FLYING FOX
    Pteropus giganteus
    from PAKISTAN .. INDIA .. BURMA
    weighs between 2 - 3 pounds
    ( weight of a heavy book )
    wingspan is a bit over 6 feet wide

    BRACKEN CAVE IN .. TEXAS  UNITED STATES
    where a colony of MEXICAN FREE-TAILED BATS lives
    more than 20 MILLION  individuals residing there  ! ! !
    LARGEST COLONY OF MAMMALS IN THE WORLD   ! ! !

    these amazing animals eat  200 TONS of insects each night  !!!
 

    BIOLOGY
    physical characteristics
    warm blooded
    mammal
    COLOR
    AMAZING BLACK AND WHITE COLOR PATTERN
    SPOTTED BATS ARE PIEBALD ANIMALS  
    piebald is black and white coloration

    spotted bats have a SPOTTED coloration - 3 spots in total on back
    ONE LARGE WHITE SPOT ON EACH SHOULDER
    ONE LARGE SPOT ON THE LOWER PART OF BACK
    HAVE BRIGHT WHITE FUR AT THE BASE OF EACH EAR

    BIOLOGISTS ARE NOT SURE WHY THE BEAUTIFUL SPOTTED BAT IS BLACK AND WHITE
    it is believed they are black and white so they will be camouflaged in their rocky habitat
    CAMOUFLAGE HELPS THEM BLEND IN WITH THEIR SURROUNDINGS AND
    TO HIDE THEM FROM POSSIBLE PREDATORS

    in summer spotted bats more noticeable than in winter ..
    THIS HELPS THEM BE MORE VISIBLE TO EACH OTHER DURING TIME OF MATING ..
    being more visible to each other helps to not waste any energy trying to find each other   ! !!

    SPOTTED BATS ARE ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL OF ALL BATS OF THE WORLD !
    FACES LOOK LIKE DOGS   !!!  THEY ARE SO SO SO CUTE   !!!   SUPER CUTE  !!!

    SIZE
    LARGE BATS   !
    4.2 - 4.9 inches tall .. body and head height
    ears are almost as long as bodies  !!!
    wingspan is 13 - 15 inches
    weight   ..   .4 - .8 of an ounce
    HAVE LIGHTWEIGHT BODIES .. NOT DENSE AND HEAVY
    less weight means easier flying

    FUR
    LONG AND VERY SILKY
    VERY FURRY

    EYES
    HAVE FANTASTIC VISION !
    see great in daylight .. just as other mammals do !
    see much much much better at night than many other mammals
    MUCH MUCH BETTER THAN HUMANS  !!!

    EARS
    BIG EARED BAT  
    large large ears for astounding hearing .. HAVE SUPER AMAZING EXCELLENT HEARING !
    HAVE THE LARGEST EARS OF ANY BAT IN NORTH AMERICA  !!!
    most insect eating bats have really big ears
    MOST BATS WITH BIG BIG EARS LIVE IN WILD AREAS AND WESTERN DESERTS OF THE UNITED STATES  
    special grooves inside spotted bat ears help direct sounds to the inside part of their ears
    SPOTTED BATS HAVE HUGE HUGE EARS TO HEAR QUIET QUIET QUIET MOTHS  !!!

    ALL MAMMALS HAVE HAIRS INSIDE THEIR EARS
    these hairs help with hearing
    ALL MAMMALS LOOSE SOME OF THESE IMPORTANT HAIRS AS THEY AGE
    spotted bats loose these hairs also
    BUT ..
    SPOTTED BATS REGENERATE CELLS WITHIN THEIR EARS AND GROW NEW HAIRS  !!!
    so
    SPOTTED BAT'S HEARING STAYS AWESOME FOR THEIR ENTIRE LIVES  !!!
    wow !!!

    WHEN SPOTTED BATS REST OR SLEEP ..
    they fold their ears back against their backs
    WHEN THEY BECOME ALERT AND ARE READY TO FLY .. THEIR EARS STAND RIGHT UP  ! ! !

    INSECT EATING BAT EARS ARE OFTEN .. LARGER .. LONGER ..  MORE POINTED
    INSECT EATING BATS NEED TO GATHER INFORMATION FROM THEIR PREY AS THEY HUNT

    FRUIT EATING BAT EARS ARE OFTEN .. SMALLER .. SHORTER .. MORE ROUNDED
    FRUIT EATING BATS DO NOT HAVE TO LISTEN FOR THEIR FOOD

    NOSE
    PLAIN NOSED BATS  
    are plain nosed bats because do not have all sorts of lumps bumps or facial variations
    HAVE FANTASTIC FANTASTIC SENSE OF SMELL  ! ! !

    MOUTH  
    INCREDIBLY SHARP SHARP SHARP TEETH
    small tiny teeth
    USE SHARP TEETH TO CRUNCH AND CHEW MOTH FOOD
    INTO A SOUPY SOFT MASS BEFORE SWALLOWING  !
    have 2 sets of teeth
    deciduous and permanent

    4 KINDS OF TEETH ..
    incisors .. canines .. premolars .. molars

    22 DECIDUOUS TEETH
    also called milk teeth or baby teeth
    BABY TEETH ARE HOOKED SPICULES
    these hooks allow the spotted bat baby to firmly attach to mom's nursing nipples
    THESE HOOKS ALLOW THE BABY TO HOLD ONTO MOM
    EVEN IF SHE IS FLYING  ! ! !
    looses baby teeth very quickly

    permanent teeth come in very early in the development of the little bat  !
    38 ADULT TEETH

    SPOTTED BATS HAVE REALLY REALLY REALLY STRONG JAWS  !!!!

    LARYNX
    ALL SOUNDS MADE IN LARYNX AND THEN SENT OUT THROUGH MOUTH
    MAKE 2 TYPES OF SOUNDS
    FOR ..
    ECHOLOCATION
    or
    COMMUNICATION

    VIBRASSAE
    ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF THEIR BODIES HAVE TOUCH SENSITIVE
    stiff hairs .. whiskers .. bristles
    these touch sensitive vibrassae receptors help the spotted bats to catch food
    WHISKERS ARE LOCATED AROUND THE SPOTTED BATS NOSE AND MOUTH
    BRISTLES ARE LOCATED ON THE SPOTTED BATS FEET
    STIFF HAIRS ARE LOCATED ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE SPOTTED BATS WINGS

    SKELETON
    SKELETON IS SIMILAR TO OTHER MAMMALS
    very very similar to humans  !!!
    HAVE HANDS WITH FINGERS
    HAVE FEET WITH TOES
    super light bones  
    DO NOT HAVE HOLLOW BONES LIKE BIRDS
    have marrow filled bones like humans !

    HAVE SUPER FLEXIBLE NECKS !!!
    vertebrae and muscles are really movable

    WHILE HANGING UPSIDE DOWN ..
    CAN LOOK STRAIGHT AHEAD
    AND THEN TURN HEAD TO LEFT OR RIGHT
    AND END UP LOOKING DIRECTLY BEHIND

    THEN ..
    CAN ROLL NECK AND LOOK IN ANY DIRECTION NEEDED  

    wow !!!

    most mammals including giraffes and bats
    have the same number of vertebrae in their necks  !
    GIRAFFES HAVE 7 NECK VERTEBRAE
    SPOTTED BATS HAVE 7 NECK VERTEBRAE

    LEGS
    LEGS BEND BACKWARD ..
    they are turned at the pelvis outward .. so their knees face outward and
    a bit towards the back ..
    this helps them to hang upside down


    FEET
    SPOTTED BATS HAVE 5 TOES ON EACH OF THEIR 2 FEET
    toes are also called digits
    long .. very strong
    EACH TOE HAS CLAW
    long .. curved .. very strong .. like a type of hook
    CAN HANG FROM
    rock ledges .. tiny crevices in rock walls
    USE AMAZING TOE CLAWS FOR ALL SORTS OF ACTIVITIES ..
    to climb around roosts .. using toe claws and thumbs together on all fours
    TO CLEAN AND COMB FUR
    TO CLEAN EYES
    TO CLING UPSIDE DOWN AND .. rest .. sleep .. hibernate
    TOE CLAW GRIP IS SO STRONG .. SO POWERFUL ..
    that they can hang by one foot while they clean themselves with the other foot
    TOES ARE IN DIGITAL LOCK WHEN HANGING  
    digital lock is when toe digits lock in place
    grip is so strong .. stays even during sleep
    does not relax and open
    digital lock keeps them from falling while they sleep !

    DIGESTIVE TRACT
    DIGEST FOOD EXTREMELY EXTREMELY FAST !!
    digest food more quickly than most other animals on planet Earth !
    THE AMAZING FAST DIGESTION HELPS THEM TO NOT HAVE TO CARRY A LOT OF WEIGHT
    WHILE FLYING FROM UNDIGESTED FOOD !!!

    METABOLISM
    SPOTTED BAT METABOLISM IS QUITE UNUSUAL
    METABOLISM OF ALL BAT SPECIES IS NOT LIKE OTHER MAMMALS
    breathing .. heartbeat .. body temperature
    ALL 3 VARY QUITE A LOT
    depending on what the bat is doing
    depending on temperature of where bat is
    SOMETIMES TEMPERATURE OF RESTING BATS IS EXACTLY TEMPERATURE OF SURROUNDINGS

    CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    SPECIAL VALVES IN VEINS PREVENT ACCUMULATION OF BLOOD IN HEAD
    ( otherwise blood would accumulate from roosting upside down )

    TAIL
    USE THEIR TAIL
    for balance
    to help make sudden turns
    ( to change direction suddenly )

    USE THEIR TAIL MEMBRANE
    as a brake when flying
    as a food catching pouch

    THE AREA BETWEEN THE SPOTTED BAT'S LEG .. FOOT AND TAIL
    IS CALLED THE CALCAR

    WINGS
    EVERY BAT SPECIES WINGS ARE DIFFERENT
    the shape thickness and length of species wings are determined by diet of that species
    EXAMPLE :
    flying foxes have long long wings ..
    these long wings help flying foxes to fly long distances in the open
    to locate fruits
    SPOTTED BATS WINGS DO NOT HAVE FUR
    when spotted bats wings are stretched out .. they are 3 - 4 times length of body
    greyish pink color

    SPOTTED BATS WINGS ARE EXTREMELY SENSITIVE
    their wings collect information about their surroundings
    UNDERSIDES OF WINGS HAVE MANY TINY HAIRLIKE TOUCH RECEPTORS THAT HELP TO DETECT
    air turbulence
    temperature changes
    the warmth of an insect body
    THESE HAIRS DETECT AT ABOUT 6 INCHES AWAY FROM OBJECT               WOW !!!

    WING SKELETON
    the bones of the arms and hands of spotted bats are the foundation of wings
    UPPER ARM BONE IS SHORT
    2 lower arm bones are elongated ( longer )
    FINGER BONES ARE VERY ELONGATED
    thumb is quite short
    THUMB IS CLAW BONE AT TOP OF WING
    4 long fingers and 1 short thumb are very very flexible  !

    FLIGHT MUSCLES
    PRIMARY FLIGHT MUSCLES .. ON .. CHESTS .. BACKS .. SHOULDERS
    skin membrane VERY muscular  
    but
    muscles of wings do NOT power flight
    LESS ENERGY USED TO FLY BY USING MUSCLES ON BODY AND NOT ON WINGS  !!!
    wings are 2 layers of skin membrane over the bones of .. arms .. hands .. fingers
    SKIN MEMBRANE CONNECTS WINGS TO .. BODY .. LEGS .. TAIL
    spotted bats wings very thin .. almost see through
    wings are ..
    smooth .. flexible .. elastic ..
    WINGS ARE  very very very strong .. extremely tough  ! ! !
    if they were not they would be torn by thorns and twigs !

    WHEN CLOSE THEIR WINGS ..
    the membrane muscles squeeze up and contract
    the skin pulls in close
    the skin in not loose

    WINGS ARE LIKE WEBBED HANDS
    move their wings like humans move fingers
    CAN CHANGE SHAPE OF WINGS EXTREMELY QUICK !!!
    when flying can change direction extremely fast !!!

    CHASE INSECTS
    grab with wings ..   WOW !!!!  ( this is an amazing site .. their wings are even better than human hands ! )
    flip into tail membrane
    then
    scoop into mouth  !!!!     WOW !! WOW !!

    WHEN READY TO FLY ..
    launch from tree perch or cave roost by releasing grip with toes
    head is already down towards ground
    then open wings ..
    WHEN THEY FLY .. pull themselves through the air ..
    the movement of their wings is like human swimming breast stroke ..
    NOT like birds flapping wings

    FOR FLIGHT TO BE POSSIBLE ..
    streamlined body is necessary
    body has to be kept above ground .. need lift
    body has to propel through air .. need thrust
    both lift and propulsion achieved on down stroke of wings ..
    air moves faster over top of wings than on underside of wings
    increase lift by increasing speed of air over top of wing
    this is done by moving wings faster !!!

    SPOTTED BATS CAN FLY AS FAST AS 60 MILES PER HOUR  !!!
    can fly as high as 30 - 50 feet above the ground
    ( above the pine tree tops where they live and hunt )
    SPOTTED BATS HAVE A DIRECT RAPID FLIGHT PATTERN  !!

    WHEN SPOTTED BATS REST OR SLEEP THEY FOLD THEIR WINGS OVER AND AROUND THEIR BODIES
    like a warm insulating blanket  !!!

    SPOTTED BATS HAVE SMALL LEGS AND SMALL PELVIS  ..
    creates streamlined body ..
    legs used for flying more than walking
 
 

    LIFESPAN

    BATS LIVE VERY LONG LIVES  !
    BIOLOGISTS ARE NOT SURE HOW LONG THE ELUSIVE SPOTTED BAT LIVES
    IT IS BELIEVED THAT THEY MAY LIVE UP TO 30 YEARS
 

    WHERE  IN  THE  WORLD

    SPOTTED BATS ARE NATIVE TO NORTH AMERICA

    THE RANGE OF THE SPOTTED BAT IS FROM
    southwestern CANADA
    through the western  UNITED STATES
    south into CENTRAL AMERICA
 

    HABITAT

    SPOTTED BATS LIVE IN A WIDE RANGE OF HABITATS
    MOST OFTEN LIVE IN ..
    rough .. rocky .. semi-arid .. arid .. high cliffs .. canyons .. ponderosa pine forests ..
    woodlands .. scrub .. open desert

    THEIR HABITAT HAS TO BE CLOSE TO WATER

    spotted bats use all sorts of methods to gather information and make determinations
    ALONG WITH THEIR MEMORIES .. SPOTTED BATS USE VISUAL and ACOUSTIC CUES
    TO LOCATE SUITABLE ROOSTS

    THE HOMES OF SPOTTED BATS ARE CALLED ROOSTS ..
    have 3 types ..
    day roost
    night roost
    hibernation roost

    DAY ROOSTS ARE CRACKS AND CREVICES ON HIGH CLIFFS
    spotted bats leave their day roosts just as the sun is setting
    return 1 hour before sunrise

    NIGHT ROOSTS ARE OFTEN IN PINE TREES
    mostly used for eating

    HIBERNATION ROOSTS
    inside caves
    called HIBERNACULA

    during winter spotted bats may get together in hibernation clusters
    clusters may consist of spotted bats from different areas that may be several miles apart
    clusters may consist of more species of bat than just spotted bats
    WHEN SOLITARY-ISH SPOTTED BATS CLUSTER FOR WINTER HIBERNATION
    they do not get too too close to each other .. just next to each other

    CAVE TEMPERATURES ARE QUITE STEADY AND CONSTANT
    cave temperatures very rarely drop down to freezing
    cave temperatures usually remain ..  40 - 48 degrees Fahrenheit

    VERY LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT THE WINTER HABITS OF THE SPOTTED BATS
    it is not known for sure if spotted bats hibernate for the entire year
    or .. hibernate for brief intervals
    or .. if they migrate a bit  

    spotted bats at high elevations certainly hibernate for the longest duration

    spotted bats at low to middle elevations certainly hibernate for short intervals
    but may remain active periodically throughout the winter


    WHEN SPOTTED BATS SLEEP OR HIBERNATE THEY ARRANGE THEIR BODIES IN A SPECIAL WAY
    TO STAY WARM AND CONSERVE ENERGY
    spotted bats fold their long long ears back and tuck them under as they wrap their wings around their bodies
    IN THIS WAY SPOTTED BATS ARE NICE AND SNUG AND COSY AND TUCKED IN FOR REST TIME !!!!
    wow !!!

    SPOTTED BATS PREPARE FOR HIBERNATION
    by entering mild torpor state during day time
    IN A TORPOR STATE
    metabolism rate slows down
    respiratory rate drops
    heart rate drops
    DURING THE NIGHT TIME SPOTTED BATS CONTINUE THEIR REGULAR HUNTING AND FORAGING FOR FOOD

    SPOTTED BATS PREPARE FOR WINTER HIBERNATION BY EATING LOTS AND LOTS OF FOOD
    IN LATE SUMMER AND AUTUMN
    the spotted bat stores surplus food as body fat
    THE FAT WILL BE USED AS  A SOURCE OF NUTRITION FOR THE BODY THROUGHOUT THE WINTER  !

    AT THE END OF WINTER HIBERNATION SPOTTED BATS ARE VERY THIN  

    DURING HIBERNATION ..
    the body temperature of spotted bats goes from 104 degrees Fahrenheit to as low as 32 degrees Fahrenheit !
    BREATHING RATE DROPS FROM ABOUT 200 BREATHS PER MINUTE TO ABOUT 23 BREATHS PER MINUTE !
    heart rate slows down from 900 beats per minute to 20 beats per minute !

    ALL OF THESE CHANGES HAPPEN TO DECREASE ENERGY USE
    this makes it easier for spotted bats to stay alive at a time when they cannot find food  ! ! !  
  WOODCARVING  PHOTOGRAPHS    
5 inches tall
 
 
   
 
   
 
  WOODCARVING  PHOTOGRAPHS  
8 inches wide
   
 
   
 
   
   
 
  ANIMAL  PHOTOGRAPHS
 
 
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
   


THE  WORLD  WAS  MADE
FROM  
GOD's  LOVE
 
"  O LORD ..
How excellent is thy lovingkindness ..
under the shadow of thy wings.
"
Psalm 36:5,7
 
" our eyes look to the Lord our God "
Psalm 123:2
 
" The Lord’s word is flawless;
he shields all who take refuge in him.
"
Psalm 18:30
 
" God our Savior,
the whole earth is filled with awe at your wonders
"
Psalm 65:5,8
 
" The Lord lives !
.. he shows unfailing love  "
Psalm 18:46,50
 

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