EASTERN MOLES ARE MAMMALS
EASTERN MOLES ARE INSECTIVORES
MOLES LIVE ALL OVER THE WORLD
7 SPECIES LIVE IN NORTH AMERICA
they are categorized into 5 different GENUS groups
THE MOST WIDESPREAD SPECIES IS THE EASTERN MOLE
there are 29 species of mole in the world ..
THE SMALLEST MOLES IN THE WORLD ARE
the SHREW MOLES of ASIA and the PACIFIC COAST of NORTH AMERICA
5 inches long including tails
THE LARGEST MOLE IN THE WORLD IS
the RUSSIAN DESMAN of SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE and CENTRAL WESTERN ASIA
14 inches long including tail
SCIENTISTS DO NOT KNOW ALL THERE IS TO KNOW ABOUT THE EASTERN MOLE ! ! !
THE BODY OF THE EASTERN MOLE IS PERFECTLY ADAPTED TO SUBTERRANEAN LIFE
WELL EQUIPPED PHYSICALLY FOR LIFE UNDERGROUND
THE EASTERN MOLE'S BODY IS VERY VERY FLEXIBLE
THIS FLEXIBILITY ALLOWS FOR EASY FORWARD AND BACKWARD MOVEMENT IN THEIR TUNNELS
the Eastern Mole can be all sorts of colors
the color of the beautiful EASTERN MOLE can be
light silver grey underneath
and lower parts of sides
the female Eastern Mole is a bit smaller than the male Eastern Mole
HEAD AND BODY
5 - 8 inches long
1 - 1 1/2 inches long
the eastern moles that live in the Northeastern part of their range are larger than
the eastern moles throughout the rest of their range
CAN WEIGH 1 1/2 - 5 OUNCES
USUALLY WEIGH 2.75 OUNCES
THE EASTERN MOLE HAS A LONG CYLINDRICAL BODY
shaped like a triangle or a wedge
most of the Eastern Mole's body is covered with
fur that is
very thick . very dense . gorgeous . velvety . iridescent
EXCEPT FOR ..
THE EASTERN MOLE'S FUR IS MADE OF SOFT SOFT SOFT FLEXIBLE HAIRS
the fur is in uniform length
THE FUR LIES IN ANY DIRECTION
CAN BE PUSHED IN ANY DIRECTION
THIS ALLOWS FOR MOVEMENT IN TUNNELS .. FORWARD AND BACKWARD
the eastern mole's fur helps the mole to move through the Earth acting as a CUSHION ! ! !
the eastern mole's skin is more sensitive to touch than any other mammal !!!
THE FUR RECEIVES INFORMATION AND CONVEYS IT NEUROLOGICALLY TO THE BRAIN ABOUT ..
SURROUNDINGS .. PREY .. OTHER EASTERN MOLES
THE EASTERN MOLE'S HEAD IS TRIANGULAR IN SHAPE
neck is not prominent
with protective layer of skin
ear openings .. little tiny holes near shoulders .. concealed by super super super dense fur
SUPER ACUTE EXCELLENT HEARING ! ! !
extremely flexible snout
THE EASTERN MOLE'S ENTIRE SNOUT IS EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SENSITIVE !
the eastern mole feels vibrations in the Earth with its snout
THE EASTERN MOLE'S SNOUT IS COVERED WITH THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF TINY TINY HAIRS !
these tiny hairs transmit information about the surrounding areas to the mole's brain
THE INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NERVES
the end of the snout has numerous long hairs
THESE HAIRS ARE LOCATED AROUND THE NOSE
these hairs are called VIBRASSAE
VIBRASSA - ANY ONE OF THE STIFF SENSORY HAIRS GROWING NEAR THE NOSE OF AN ANIMAL
VIBRASSAE - ALL OF THE SENSORY HAIRS
vibrassae are also called WHISKERS ! ! !
the vibrassae are organs of touch and communication
THE VIBRASSAE COLLECT INFORMATION FROM THE AREA AROUND THE MOLE
nerves at their bases communicate the information to the brain
nose is at the tip of snout
the eastern mole has a highly developed sense of touch .. especially the NOSE
the nose is their absolute most important sense organ
THE EASTERN MOLE HAS A HIGHLY DEVELOPED SENSE OF SMELL
SUPER SUPER FANTASTIC AMAZING SENSE OF SMELL ! ! !
THE EASTERN MOLE HAS 36 TEETH
ALL OF THE TEETH OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SHARP
the eastern mole has really really really white teeth
the front teeth of the eastern mole are incredibly sharp incisors
THE SIDE OR CHEEK TEETH OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE DILAMBODONT
dilambodont teeth are shaped like a W
the chewing surfaces have deep grooves in the W shape
FRONT PAWS and FRONT LEGS
THE MOST AMAZING THING ABOUT THE EASTERN MOLE MUST BE THE INCREDIBLY AMAZING FRONT PAWS !!!
the front paws of the eastern mole have a peculiar physical adaptation that is REALLY INTERESTING !!!
BOTH OF THE FRONT PAWS ARE TURNED ON THEIR INNER SIDES .. SO THAT
THE TOP SIDE OF THE PAWS FACE INWARD TOWARDS THE BODY
THE UNDER SIDE OF THE PAWS FACE OUTWARD AWAY FROM THE BODY
when the eastern mole walks .. the paws rotate outward and down
so the under sides of the paws face the ground .. then the mole moves along super fast !!
the eastern mole has HUGE MUSCULAR front legs
THE LEGS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE THE SOURCE OF THE POWER BEHIND THE AMAZING FRONT PAWS !
the shoulder bones and the upper bones of the front legs are really really WIDE !
the large width of these bones creates large areas for the muscles to attach to ..
this evolutionary development results in GREATLY enhanced leg and paw STRENGTH and digging abilities !
the front paws have
a few hairs on top sides
no hair on undersides
THE FRONT PAWS ARE
shaped like broad shovels
as wide as they are long
THE FRONT PAWS ARE WEBBED BETWEEN THE FINGERS
the webbing is very very very thick strong skin
the webbing of the front paws helps the eastern mole to have astoundingly effective digging abilities
THE LARGE WEBBED PAWS ARE PERFECT TO PUSH THE EARTH BACK TOWARDS THEIR TAIL AND
OUT OF THEIR WAY ! ! !
EASTERN MOLES DIG AMAZINGLY FAST FAST FAST BECAUSE OF THOSE AMAZING PAWS ! ! !
BACK LEGS and BACK FEET
THE BACK LEGS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE SHORT AND POWERFUL ! ! !
THE POWERFUL FRONT PAWS CAN MOVE ASTONISHINGLY QUICKLY THROUGH THE EARTH ..
even Earth that is a bit hard !
the front legs and paws work like shovels and their handles
the earth ! ! !
WHEN EASTERN MOLES DIG OR BURROW .. THEY ACTUALLY DIVE INTO THE EARTH
THEY THRUST THEIR FRONT FEET INTO THE EARTH
THEN BRING IN HEAD
THEN BRING IN REST OF BODY !!
EASTERN MOLES DIG WITH THEIR FRONT FEET IN A BREAST STROKE MOTION LIKE HUMAN SWIMMING !!
TO DIG ..
rotate right paw to the left towards chest
and back towards their tail
pushing the earth back towards their tail
rotate left paw to the right towards chest
and back towards their tail
pushing the earth back towards their tail
the mole moves and pushes the earth backward past their body with their back feet
THE FRONT PAWS OF THE EASTERN MOLE HAVE VERY DEVELOPED .. VERY LONG .. VERY SHARP
THE CLAW NAILS ARE
SHORT .. ROUND .. SCALY .. VERY FEW HAIRS
EASTERN MOLES LIVE ABOUT 6 YEARS IN THE WILD ! ! !
WHERE IN THE WORLD
MOLES LIVE IN TEMPERATE AREAS OF THE EARTH
THE EASTERN MOLE LIVES IN NORTH AMERICA
THE RANGE OF THIS SPECIES IS
from southern ONTARIO CANADA
the eastern UNITED STATES
south to FLORIDA
west to middle of the UNITED STATES
south to northeastern MEXICO
GEOGRAPHIC HABITATS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE ..
fields . meadows . pastures . woodlands . forests . grassy areas .
they prefer soil that is..
loose . fertile . moist . well drained
THE EASTERN MOLE AVOIDS AREAS WITH
wet soil ( where flooding might occur )
gravel rich soil
THE HOME TERRITORY OF THE MALE EASTERN MOLE IS
ABOUT 100 FEET X 200 FEET
THE HOME TERRITORY OF THE FEMALE EASTERN MOLE IS
ABOUT 100 FEET X 150 FEET
the territories of male eastern moles can overlap each other
the territories of female eastern moles are more well defined and do not overlap into others territories
TERRITORY CAN CHANGE
if amount of food available changes
can enlarge tunnels in one direction
build new tunnels
can abandon part of tunnel in opposite direction
let old tunnels collapse
THE EASTERN MOLE CREATES A COMPLICATED SERIES OF SUBTERRANEAN
TUNNELS AND NESTS AND STORAGE ROOMS
AND CORRESPONDING SURFACE MOLERUNS AND MOLEHILLS AND MOLE MOUNDS AS ITS HOME
THE HOME OF THE EASTERN MOLE IS CALLED A BURROW !
the eastern mole is an amazing excavating builder ! ! !
super fast digger
can dig or tunnel more than 11 inches per minute
can completely bury self under surface in less than 1 second
THE TUNNEL NETWORK OF THE EASTERN MOLE KEEPS THEM
safe . warm . protected
THE TUNNELS ENABLE THEM TO
find food . raise their babies successfully
the tunnels are of varying depths which helps them to find food under different conditions
ONCE A TUNNEL SYSTEM IS MADE .. the mole uses it continuously
the tunnel system may be used by generations of moles
can be used for decades .. PERHAPS HUNDREDS OF YEARS !
CONSTRUCTS 2 types of tunnels
uses different types of construction for the different tunnel types
EASTERN MOLES USE THEIR BODIES AS A VARIETY OF TOOLS AND MACHINES
they contort their bodies into different positions to accomplish different digging tasks
UPPER LEVEL TUNNELS
used to forage for food
may be just below surface - about 4 inches deep
up to 12 inches deep
TUNNELS MAY BE 100 - 150 FEET LONG
these tunnels radiate out in all directions
the soil where these tunnels are is softer than the lower tunnels
when making an upper level tunnel
mole turns on one side .. uses upper front paw to scrape soil ahead .. then pushes soil up into area above
THIS PROCEDURE CREATES THE VISIBLE MOLE RUN OR RIDGE ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH
created in warmer months
LOWER LEVEL TUNNELS
LOWER TUNNELS AND NESTS ARE USED BY EASTERN MOLES IN COLD WEATHER
in the autumn .. to get ready for cold weather .. eastern moles make repairs to existing lower level tunnels
and nests and food chambers
may dig new tunnels and nests and food chambers
eastern moles move down into those deeper lower level tunnels
are about 24 - 30 inches below the surface of Earth
IF IT GETS REALLY COLD EASTERN MOLES WILL DIG THEIR TUNNELS EVEN DEEPER
SO THEY ARE BELOW THE FROST LINE
the soil where the lower level tunnels are located is much harder and very dense
they have to use a different method of excavating in the harder earth
they will dig with their front paws out in front of their bodies
as the eastern moles dig in this much harder earth
their back feet are pressed against the sides of the tunnel for support ! ! !
they scrape the earth ahead with one foot and then the other
every so often they push the loose earth back behind them with back feet
after bit of loose earth has collected .. the mole turns around and faces the pile
puts one front paw ahead of body
turns head to one side
uses that front paw as a BULLDOZER BLADE and pushes the earth forward
the moles then push the earth to the surface through a vertical tunnel and out one of the entrance / exit holes
within a molehill
the moles repeat this procedure as they excavate
as the eastern moles construct new and longer tunnels ..
new vertical tunnels and exit holes must be created to push out the excavated earth
this all leads to the development of multiple molehills !
THE DEEP LOWER LEVEL TUNNELS ARE PERMANENT STRUCTURES ! ! !
a molerun is a small visible surface ridge of earth that is created by the underground tunnel excavation and
construction by moles
a small pile of pushed up earth created by moles so they can travel to the surface of the Earth
THE MOLEHILL IS ALSO CALLED A MOLECAST
the ventilation system for the mole's underground tunnel network
the entrances and exits of the mole's home
2 - 4 inches tall
6 - 12 inches in diameter
THE EASTERN MOLE CONSTRUCTS MANY MOLEHILLS
ALONG ITS TUNNEL SYSTEM
most new molehills are created in spring
after the ground thaws ..
eastern moles clean out their tunnels
restoration work on existing molehills is done in springtime
nests of eastern moles are also called DENS
all eastern moles have more than 1 nest
they have up to 8 nests in the upper tunnels
they have up to 8 nests in the lower tunnels
THE NESTS OF THE EASTERN MOLES ARE CIRCULAR HOLLOW CAVE-LIKE CHAMBERS
have 2 types of nests
have multiple sleeping / resting nests in both the upper levels and lower levels
one nursery nest
both upper and lower level sleeping resting nests are
about 8 inches in diameter
lined with soft grasses and leaves
the upper level sleeping nests are located beneath a large surface stones or strong tree roots
NURSERY NESTS LOCATED ONLY IN UPPER PART OF TUNNEL SYSTEM
about 10 inches long .. 4 inches wide
lined with super soft grasses and leaves
( the eastern mole mom collects nest lining materials from the surface of the ground )
about 12 inches below surface
under a clump of plants or tree roots for protection
NO OUTWARD SIGNS OF NURSERY NEST or SLEEPING NESTS
BECAUSE THERE ARE NO DIRECT OPENINGS TO THE UNDERGROUND NESTS FROM THE SURFACE
OF THE EARTH
NEST LINING MATERIAL STORAGE
eastern moles excavate underground chambers along their tunnel system to store all sorts of materials
to line their nests with
large pile of earth pushed up on the ground surface much larger than molehills
eastern moles excavate underground chambers along their tunnel system to store all sorts of food items
for use during cold weather in the winter
THE EASTERN MOLE COLLECTS HUGE AMOUNTS OF FOOD IN THE FOOD STORAGE CHAMBERS !
EASTERN MOLES ARE JUST SO AMAZING !!!
THEY ARE TRULY A SUPER GREAT FRIEND TO PLANET EARTH !!!
LISTEN TO THE EARTH AND ALL ITS BEAUTIFUL MUSIC
LISTEN TO THE SONG OF BIRDS
|" God made the wild animals "|