Eastern  Mole
   
Scalopus  aquaticus
   
LITTLE GENTLEMAN IN THE VELVET COAT
EASTERN AMERICAN MOLE
COMMON AMERICAN MOLE
   
    SCIENTIFIC  CLASSIFICATION
    KINGDOM :              Animalia          
    SUB KINGDOM :     Metazoa             
    PHYLUM :                Chordata
    SUB PHYLUM :       Vertebrata
    CLASS :                   Mammalia
    ORDER :                  Insectivora
    FAMILY :                  Talpidae
    SUB FAMILY :         Talpinae
    GENUS :                  Scalopus
    SPECIES :               aquaticus
    ***************************************************************************************************************
    to learn about SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION ..
    go to ..
    LINNAEUS SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION page
 
" Give thanks to the LORD ..
He gives food to every creature.
His love endures forever.
"
Psalm 136:1,25

    HELPFUL INFORMATION


    EASTERN MOLES ARE MAMMALS
    EASTERN MOLES ARE INSECTIVORES

    MOLES LIVE ALL OVER THE WORLD

    7 SPECIES LIVE IN NORTH AMERICA
    they are categorized into 5 different GENUS groups

    THE MOST WIDESPREAD SPECIES IS THE EASTERN MOLE

    there are 29 species of mole in the world ..
    there are
    moles
    desmans
    shrew-moles

    THE SMALLEST MOLES IN THE WORLD ARE
    the SHREW MOLES of ASIA  and the PACIFIC COAST of NORTH AMERICA
    5 inches long including tails

    THE LARGEST MOLE IN THE WORLD IS
    the RUSSIAN DESMAN of SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE and CENTRAL WESTERN ASIA
    14 inches long including tail



    SCIENTISTS DO NOT KNOW ALL THERE IS TO KNOW ABOUT THE EASTERN MOLE  ! ! !
 

    BIOLOGY

    physical characteristics
    THE BODY OF THE EASTERN MOLE IS PERFECTLY ADAPTED TO SUBTERRANEAN LIFE
    WELL EQUIPPED PHYSICALLY FOR LIFE UNDERGROUND

    THE EASTERN MOLE'S BODY IS VERY VERY FLEXIBLE
    THIS FLEXIBILITY ALLOWS FOR EASY FORWARD AND BACKWARD MOVEMENT IN THEIR TUNNELS


    COLOR
    the Eastern Mole can be all sorts of colors
    the color of the beautiful EASTERN MOLE can be
    blue-grey
    silver
    light grey
    light brown
    brown black
    dark grey
    black
    brownish
    copper

    light silver grey underneath
    and lower parts of sides


    SIZE
    the female Eastern Mole is a bit smaller than the male Eastern Mole
    HEAD AND BODY
    5 - 8 inches long
    TAIL
    1 - 1 1/2 inches long
    the eastern moles that live in the Northeastern part of their range are larger than
    the eastern moles throughout the rest of their range


    WEIGHT
    CAN WEIGH   1 1/2 - 5 OUNCES
    USUALLY WEIGH  2.75 OUNCES


    SHAPE
    THE EASTERN MOLE HAS A LONG CYLINDRICAL BODY
    shaped like a triangle or a wedge
    MUSCULAR
    well proportioned


    FUR
    most of the Eastern Mole's body is covered with
    fur that is
    very thick . very dense . gorgeous . velvety . iridescent
    EXCEPT FOR ..
    NOSE
    FRONT PAWS
    BACK FEET
    TAIL

    THE EASTERN MOLE'S FUR IS MADE OF SOFT SOFT SOFT FLEXIBLE HAIRS
    the fur is in uniform length
    THE FUR LIES IN ANY DIRECTION
    CAN BE PUSHED IN ANY DIRECTION
    THIS ALLOWS FOR MOVEMENT IN TUNNELS .. FORWARD AND BACKWARD

    the eastern mole's fur helps the mole to move through the Earth acting as a CUSHION  ! ! !
    the eastern mole's skin is more sensitive to touch than any other mammal  !!!
    THE FUR RECEIVES INFORMATION AND CONVEYS IT NEUROLOGICALLY TO THE BRAIN ABOUT ..
    SURROUNDINGS .. PREY .. OTHER EASTERN MOLES


    HEAD  
    THE EASTERN MOLE'S HEAD IS TRIANGULAR IN SHAPE
    neck is not prominent


    EARS
    not visible
    not prominent
    surface ears
    with protective layer of skin
    ear openings .. little tiny holes near shoulders .. concealed by super super super dense fur

    SUPER ACUTE EXCELLENT HEARING   ! ! !


    SNOUT
    extremely flexible snout
    long
    pointed
    THE EASTERN MOLE'S ENTIRE SNOUT IS EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SENSITIVE  !
    the eastern mole feels vibrations in the Earth with its snout
    THE EASTERN MOLE'S SNOUT IS COVERED WITH THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF TINY TINY HAIRS  !
    these tiny hairs transmit information about the surrounding areas to the mole's brain
    THE INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NERVES

    the end of the snout has numerous long hairs
    THESE HAIRS ARE LOCATED AROUND THE NOSE
    these hairs are called VIBRASSAE

    VIBRASSA - ANY ONE OF THE STIFF SENSORY HAIRS GROWING NEAR THE NOSE OF AN ANIMAL

    VIBRASSAE - ALL OF THE SENSORY HAIRS

    vibrassae are also called WHISKERS  ! ! !

    the vibrassae are organs of touch and communication

    THE VIBRASSAE COLLECT INFORMATION FROM THE AREA AROUND THE MOLE
    nerves at their bases communicate the information to the brain


    NOSE
    nose is at the tip of snout
    pink
    tiny

    the eastern mole has a highly developed sense of touch .. especially the NOSE
    the nose is their absolute most important sense organ
    THE EASTERN MOLE HAS A HIGHLY DEVELOPED SENSE OF SMELL
    SUPER SUPER FANTASTIC AMAZING SENSE OF SMELL   ! ! !


    MOUTH
    THE EASTERN MOLE HAS 36 TEETH
    ALL OF THE TEETH OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE EXTREMELY EXTREMELY SHARP

    the eastern mole has really really really white teeth
    the front teeth of the eastern mole are incredibly sharp incisors
    THE SIDE OR CHEEK TEETH OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE DILAMBODONT
    dilambodont teeth are shaped like a W
    the chewing surfaces have deep grooves in the W shape


    FRONT PAWS and FRONT LEGS
    THE MOST AMAZING THING ABOUT THE EASTERN MOLE MUST BE THE INCREDIBLY AMAZING FRONT PAWS !!!

    the front paws of the eastern mole have a peculiar physical adaptation that is REALLY INTERESTING !!!
    BOTH OF THE FRONT PAWS ARE TURNED ON THEIR INNER SIDES .. SO THAT
    THE TOP SIDE OF THE PAWS FACE INWARD TOWARDS THE BODY
    and
    THE UNDER SIDE OF THE PAWS FACE OUTWARD AWAY FROM THE BODY

    when the eastern mole walks .. the paws rotate outward and down
    so the under sides of the paws face the ground  .. then the mole moves along super fast !!

    the eastern mole has HUGE MUSCULAR front legs
    THE LEGS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE THE SOURCE OF THE POWER BEHIND THE AMAZING FRONT PAWS !
    the shoulder bones and the upper bones of the front legs are really really WIDE  !
    the large width of these bones creates large areas for the muscles to attach to ..
    this evolutionary development results in GREATLY enhanced leg and paw STRENGTH and digging abilities !

    the front paws have
    a few hairs on top sides
    no hair on undersides

    THE FRONT PAWS ARE
    huge
    square-ish
    shaped like broad shovels
    as wide as they are long

    THE FRONT PAWS ARE WEBBED BETWEEN THE FINGERS
    the webbing is very very very thick strong skin
    the webbing of the front paws helps the eastern mole to have astoundingly effective digging abilities
    THE LARGE WEBBED PAWS ARE PERFECT TO PUSH THE EARTH BACK TOWARDS THEIR TAIL AND
    OUT OF THEIR WAY  ! ! !

    EASTERN MOLES DIG AMAZINGLY FAST FAST FAST BECAUSE OF THOSE AMAZING PAWS  ! ! !


    BACK LEGS and BACK FEET
    THE BACK LEGS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE SHORT AND POWERFUL  ! ! !

    THE POWERFUL FRONT PAWS CAN MOVE ASTONISHINGLY QUICKLY THROUGH THE EARTH ..
    even Earth that is a bit hard !

    the front legs and paws work like shovels and their handles
    SCOOPING OUT
    and
    MOVING
    and
    SHAPING
    the earth ! ! !

    WHEN EASTERN MOLES DIG OR BURROW .. THEY ACTUALLY DIVE INTO THE EARTH
    THEY THRUST THEIR FRONT FEET INTO THE EARTH
    THEN BRING IN HEAD
    THEN BRING IN REST OF BODY  !!

    EASTERN MOLES DIG WITH THEIR FRONT FEET IN A BREAST STROKE MOTION LIKE HUMAN SWIMMING !!

    TO DIG ..
    rotate right paw to the left towards chest
    and back towards their tail
    pushing the earth back towards their tail
    then
    rotate left paw to the right towards chest
    and back towards their tail
    pushing the earth back towards their tail
    then
    the mole moves and pushes the earth backward past their body with their back feet

    THE FRONT PAWS OF THE EASTERN MOLE HAVE VERY DEVELOPED .. VERY LONG .. VERY SHARP
    CLAW NAILS

    THE CLAW NAILS ARE
    TREMENDOUSLY STRONG
    STURDY
    BROAD


    TAIL
    SHORT .. ROUND .. SCALY .. VERY FEW HAIRS
 

    LIFESPAN

    EASTERN MOLES LIVE ABOUT 6 YEARS IN THE WILD    ! ! !
 

    WHERE  IN  THE  WORLD

    MOLES LIVE IN TEMPERATE AREAS OF THE EARTH

    THE EASTERN MOLE LIVES IN NORTH AMERICA

    THE RANGE OF THIS SPECIES IS

    from southern ONTARIO CANADA
    south through
    the eastern UNITED STATES

    NEW ENGLAND
    south to FLORIDA

    west to middle of the UNITED STATES

    south to northeastern MEXICO
 

HABITAT


GEOGRAPHIC HABITATS OF THE EASTERN MOLE ARE ..
fields . meadows . pastures . woodlands . forests . grassy areas .

they prefer soil that is..
loose . fertile . moist . well drained

THE EASTERN MOLE AVOIDS AREAS WITH
wet soil  ( where flooding might occur )
rocky soil
gravel rich soil


TERRITORY

THE HOME TERRITORY OF THE MALE EASTERN MOLE IS
ABOUT  100 FEET   X   200 FEET

THE HOME TERRITORY OF THE FEMALE EASTERN MOLE IS
ABOUT   100 FEET   X   150 FEET

the territories of male eastern moles can overlap each other
the territories of female eastern moles are more well defined and do not overlap into others territories

TERRITORY CAN CHANGE
if amount of food available changes
can enlarge tunnels in one direction
build new tunnels
can abandon part of tunnel in opposite direction
let old tunnels collapse


THE EASTERN MOLE CREATES A COMPLICATED SERIES OF SUBTERRANEAN
TUNNELS AND NESTS AND STORAGE ROOMS
AND CORRESPONDING SURFACE MOLERUNS AND MOLEHILLS AND MOLE MOUNDS AS ITS HOME

WOW!

THE HOME OF THE EASTERN MOLE IS CALLED A BURROW !

the eastern mole is an amazing excavating builder ! ! !
super fast digger
can dig or tunnel more than 11 inches per minute
can completely bury self under surface in less than 1 second


TUNNELS
THE TUNNEL NETWORK OF THE EASTERN MOLE KEEPS THEM
safe . warm . protected

THE TUNNELS ENABLE THEM TO
find food . raise their babies successfully


the tunnels are of varying depths which helps them to find food under different conditions
ONCE A TUNNEL SYSTEM IS MADE .. the mole uses it continuously
the tunnel system may be used by generations of moles
can be used for decades .. PERHAPS HUNDREDS OF YEARS  !

CONSTRUCTS 2 types of tunnels
UPPER TUNNELS
LOWER TUNNELS
uses different types of construction for the different tunnel types

EASTERN MOLES USE THEIR BODIES AS A VARIETY OF TOOLS AND MACHINES
they contort their bodies into different positions to accomplish different digging tasks

UPPER LEVEL TUNNELS
used to forage for food
may be just below surface - about 4 inches deep
or
up to 12 inches deep
TUNNELS MAY BE  100 - 150 FEET LONG  
these tunnels radiate out in all directions

the soil where these tunnels are is softer than the lower tunnels

when making an upper level tunnel
mole turns on one side .. uses upper front paw to scrape soil ahead .. then pushes soil up into area above
THIS PROCEDURE CREATES THE VISIBLE MOLE RUN OR RIDGE ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH
created in warmer months

LOWER LEVEL TUNNELS
LOWER TUNNELS AND NESTS ARE USED BY EASTERN MOLES IN COLD WEATHER
in the autumn .. to get ready for cold weather .. eastern moles make repairs to existing lower level tunnels
and nests and food chambers
may dig new tunnels and nests and food chambers
then
eastern moles move down into those deeper lower level tunnels
are about 24 - 30 inches below the surface of Earth
IF IT GETS REALLY COLD EASTERN MOLES WILL DIG THEIR TUNNELS EVEN DEEPER
SO THEY ARE BELOW THE FROST LINE

the soil where the lower level tunnels are located is much harder and very dense
they have to use a different method of excavating in the harder earth
they will dig with their front paws out in front of their bodies
as the eastern moles dig in this much harder earth
their back feet are pressed against the sides of the tunnel for support  ! ! !
they scrape the earth ahead with one foot and then the other
every so often they push the loose earth back behind them with back feet
then
after bit of loose earth has collected .. the mole turns around and faces the pile
puts one front paw ahead of body
turns head to one side
uses that front paw as a BULLDOZER BLADE and pushes the earth forward

the moles then push the earth to the surface through a vertical tunnel and out one of the entrance / exit  holes
within a molehill
the moles repeat this procedure as they excavate

as the eastern moles construct new and longer tunnels ..
new vertical tunnels and exit holes must be created to push out the excavated earth

this all leads to the development of multiple molehills !

THE DEEP LOWER LEVEL TUNNELS ARE PERMANENT STRUCTURES  ! ! !


MOLERUN
a molerun is a small visible surface ridge of earth that is created by the underground tunnel excavation and
construction by moles


MOLEHILL
a small pile of pushed up earth created by moles so they can travel to the surface of the Earth
THE MOLEHILL IS ALSO CALLED A MOLECAST
molehills are
the ventilation system for the mole's underground tunnel network
and
the entrances and exits of the mole's home

MOLEHILLS are
2 - 4 inches tall
6 - 12 inches in diameter

THE EASTERN MOLE CONSTRUCTS MANY MOLEHILLS
ALONG ITS TUNNEL SYSTEM

most new molehills are created in spring
after the ground thaws ..
eastern moles clean out their tunnels
restoration work on existing molehills is done in springtime


NESTS
nests of eastern moles are also called DENS
all eastern moles have more than 1 nest
they have up to 8 nests in the upper tunnels
they have up to 8 nests in the lower tunnels
THE NESTS OF THE EASTERN MOLES ARE CIRCULAR HOLLOW CAVE-LIKE CHAMBERS
LOCATED UNDERGROUND

have 2 types of nests
have multiple sleeping / resting nests in both the upper levels and lower levels
and
one nursery nest

both upper and lower level sleeping resting nests are
about 8 inches in diameter
lined with soft grasses and leaves

the upper level sleeping nests are located beneath a large surface stones or strong tree roots

NURSERY NESTS LOCATED ONLY IN UPPER PART OF TUNNEL SYSTEM
about 10 inches long .. 4 inches wide
lined with super soft grasses and leaves
( the eastern mole mom collects nest lining materials from the surface of the ground )
about 12 inches below surface
under a clump of plants or tree roots for protection
NO OUTWARD SIGNS OF NURSERY NEST or SLEEPING NESTS
BECAUSE THERE ARE NO DIRECT OPENINGS TO THE UNDERGROUND NESTS FROM THE SURFACE
OF THE EARTH


NEST LINING MATERIAL STORAGE
eastern moles excavate underground chambers along their tunnel system to store all sorts of materials
to line their nests with


MOLE MOUND
large pile of earth pushed up on the ground surface much larger than molehills


FOOD STORAGE
eastern moles excavate underground chambers along their tunnel system to store all sorts of food items
for use during cold weather in the winter
THE EASTERN MOLE COLLECTS HUGE AMOUNTS OF FOOD IN THE FOOD STORAGE CHAMBERS !


EASTERN MOLES ARE JUST SO AMAZING   !!!
THEY ARE TRULY A SUPER GREAT FRIEND TO PLANET EARTH   !!!
   
   
 

DO  NO  HARM  TO  ANY  ANIMAL

LISTEN TO THE EARTH AND ALL ITS BEAUTIFUL MUSIC

LISTEN  TO  THE  SONG  OF  BIRDS
 
" God made the wild animals "
Genesis 1:25
 

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