FOOD

    BEAVERS ARE VEGETARIANS  !
    beavers eat all sorts of food
    the type of food they eat depends on the time of the year

    in spring summer autumn
    eat all sorts of things in addition to
    leaves twigs of trees and shrubs

    in warm months
    food is collected .. in water .. near water .. on nearby land

    in warm months
    food is brought to a favorite area outdoors

    in winter eat mostly bark from trees and shrubs

    1 acre of poplar trees can support family of 6 beavers for  1 - 2  years   !!!
    but .. since beavers manage their trees .. they can be sustained by these trees much longer !

    trees ..
    aspen  (  THEY ARE THE ABSOLUTE FAVORITE  )
    cottonwood .. balsam .. poplar .. willow  .. maple .. birch .. alder .. sweet gum .. beech .. oak .. cherry .. apple ..
    douglas fir .. pine

    tree parts ..
    leaves .. flowers .. catkins .. buds .. shoots .. seeds .. nuts .. twigs .. tree sap
    outer bark .. inner bark  ( VERY NUTRITIOUS )  .. cambium  ( VERY NUTRITIOUS )  .. sapwood

    wood is mostly cellulose .. tough material made from sugar
    pith .. soft spongy material in the center of the stem of plants

    beavers select trees mostly by scent
    select trees with most nutritional content as their favorites
    favorites are also the most fast growing
    there are a number of tree species that .. once cut down by a beaver ..
    send out multiple sprouts that keep growing ..
    the tree sort of becomes like a shrub .. with many shoots or sprouts ..
    beavers LOVE these .. because they are little and tender and full of super good nutrition  !!!  
    they are renewable munchable snacks ! ! !       WOW !!
    the beavers cultivate these snacks .. they are super agriculturalist farmers and
    THEY ARE AMAZING PLANT MANAGERS !!!

    always choose smallest trees for eating
    larger for building supplies

    ideal eating tree 3 inches or less across
    quicker to fell tasty more nutritious

    aspen - favorite of all - most protein !
    one of first trees to grow in spring
    one of fastest growing in North America
    mostly throughout northern part of range
    most widely distributed tree in north America

    one beaver may eat 200 aspens per year
    do not eat heartwood
    use that for lodge and dam repair

    eat so neat !!!

    small branches and twigs ..
    sit upright on back and legs and haunches
    eat like humans eat celery or carrot
    push into mouth from one tip end to other and MUNCH !


    medium branches
    sit upright
    hold in front paws
    rotate
    eat like humans eat corn on the cob
    move head from left to right and MUNCH !!!
    use what is left for dam or lodge repair


    usually eat  1 - 2  pounds a day
    1 beaver will usually fell one tree every other night for food
    1 tree  1 - 2  inches across is food for 1 day
    beavers consume 50 - 90 % of a tree that is 3 - 4 inches across

    in fall .. store food for winter ..
    cut saplings ..
    secure underwater .. next to lodge in mud at bottom of pond
    only tops are visible above the water
    collecting and storing food like this is called caching .. the food stored is a cache
    food cache is about 10 - 30 feet in diameter
    storing in water keeps the branches form losing nutrition
    eat inside lodge ..
    will last all winter


    beavers have digestive bacteria in digestive tracts that help digest cellulose
    have long long digestive system that helps to extract the food nutrients

    other foods ..
    viburnum  ( LOVE THESE ) .. acorns .. clover .. thistles .. cattails .. roots .. pond water lillies .. flower buds ..
    corn  ( LOVE THIS ) .. apples  ( LOVE THESE ) .. fruits .. grasses .. water  plants .. algae .. moss .. berries ..
    flowers .. duckweed .. ferns ..

    FOOD FACTS ..

    when babies can eat solid food .. mom and dad beavers
    cut branches into small lengths to allow for the size and abilities of the kits little paws  





    BEAVERS NEVER EVER ELIMINATE DIGESTIVE WASTES IN LODGES   !!!
 
 

    SOCIAL  ORGANIZATION

    BEAVERS LIVE TOGETHER IN A GROUP
    THE GROUP IS A FAMILY OF BIOLOGICALLY RELATED MEMBERS
    CALLED A COLONY OR CLAN
    USUALLY ABOUT 6 BEAVERS
    usually .. mother .. father ..
    2 yearlings born last year
    2 baby kits born this year

    all live together in wonderful supportive family !!

    OLDEST FEMALE BEAVER IS THE DOMINANT MEMBER AND LEADER
    ALL BEAVERS OF COLONY PAY ATTENTION TO HER

    close
    strong emotional bonds
    long lived family groups


    have really really strong socially organized family groups
    strong social connections useful as defense against predators

    adults very strong physically and very protective of young and each other


    newly mature unmated adult beavers are solitary until they find mates
 

    COMMUNICATION

    BEAVERS USE SEVERAL TYPES OF EFFECTIVE AND COMPLEX COMMUNICATION
    VERBAL .. CHEMICAL .. PHYSICAL

    VERBAL
    beavers have language of complex vocal communications and all sorts of sounds
    different sounds for different situations
    between mates
    parents to babies
    babies
    working beavers
    sounds of loss grief mourning

    high pitched  " beee eeee    beeee  beee "
    between 2 mated beavers

    grunts while working
    squeal
    squeak
    make sound like dripping water .. " drip drip drip "
    low whistle
    musical whine call
    musical whirring - singing together .. beautiful rhythmic musical melody
    chatter like growl
    murmur to each other with low mumblings and mutterings

    after hearing these communications
    it is obvious that they are clearly full of intimate emotional closeness and affection and devotion

    quack cluck when caring for babies

    baby beavers  ..
    cry like human babies
    whine like puppies
    honk like Canada geese
    quack like quiet duck


    CHEMICAL
    beavers use all sorts of chemical communications .. detecting aromas odors smells scents
    and making determinations and decisions based on information gathered

    beavers body odor scents are like human fingerprints - each has own very very very distinctive odor
    family members smell very very very similar

    beavers can easily recognize a family member from a distance by smell
    beavers can easily determine from a distance if a beaver approaching is a strange unknown beaver

    scent mounds
    beavers make mounds of mud leaves and grass ... about 4 inches tall  cone shaped
    cover them with castoreum - oil from the beavers glands near tail

    located every 20 - 25 feet along territory boundaries

    can have as many as 20 - 120 mounds .. lots near lodge and feeding areas

    the mounds are like message centers for beavers ..
    giving them information about ..
    which other beavers live nearby
    territory boundaries
    a safe trail to use
    and
    communicate information to attract a potential mate

    beavers can tell the difference between family members' castoreum and unknown beavers' castoreum

    beavers always smell the air to check for possible predators
    raise their heads .. putting face into wind .. close eyes to concentrate better and sniff sniff sniff
    in the mountains of Virginia country people say ..
    beavers are reading the wind

    when exit lodge .. swim in circles to smell air .. read wind .. for possible threats


    PHYSICAL
    beavers use their tails to slap water like drum
    this communicates .. alarm .. warning .. danger .. ( approach of predators .. approach of human )
    to other beavers of clan

    after slap .. all beavers disappear into deep water and stay out of sight for at least 1/2 hour

    tail slap usually issued by female clan leader

    beavers rub faces noses together when snuggling close to each other .. communicating devotion

    beavers communicate information about their attitude to other beavers by the position of their ears ..
    aggressive  =  back
    non-aggressive  =  regular
    receptive  =   forward and to sides

    even though their ears are small-ish they still can move them to communicate all sorts of information !! !
 

    SPECIES  PERPETUATION

    BEAVERS ARE MONOGAMOUS
    MATE FOR LIFE
    STAY TOGETHER FOR THEIR ENTIRE LIFETIMES
    MATED BEAVERS DO NOT SEPARATE

    MALE AND FEMALE BEAVERS ARE REPRODUCTIVELY MATURE BETWEEN 2 1/2  - 3 YEARS OF AGE

    MATING TIME IN NORTH OF RANGE .. JANUARY - JUNE

    MATING TIME IN SOUTH OF RANGE .. NOVEMBER - JANUARY

    FEMALE BEAVERS HAVE MORE THAN ONE BABY AT A TIME .. THE GROUP IS CALLED A LITTER
    usually has litter every year
    gestation of 100 - 110 days

    babies usually born in MAY - JUNE
    male stays with female during births - both parents care for the babies


    beavers have no external differences that can visually aid in telling them apart
    ( unless female is nursing her babies )
    male and female beavers are almost identical internally too !!!

    male and female beavers reproductive organs are inside their bodies ..
    this arrangement protects them and keeps water out

    female can mate at only 1 time per year
    prospective mates located by scent
    smell each other long before can see each other !
    super duper sense of smell enables a beaver to find mates that they are NOT genetically related to ..
    diverse unrelated genetic material will create genetically strong healthy beavers !!!
    this is the absolute best and ONLY way for all beavers to contribute to successful species perpetuation

    before births mom puts down new clean bedding .. with super super soft soft soft shredded bark
    mom gives birth sitting up with her tail forward ..
    in this position she is able to care for babies immediately !!!

    wow!!!
 

    BABY  BYTES

    NEWBORN BABY BEAVERS
    15 inches including tail
    tail .. 3 1/2 inches

    1/2 - 1 1/2 pounds
    soft fluffy fur
    eyes open
    able to walk
    can swim on first day  .. usually begin swimming within couple days

    drink milk from mom

    baby called kit

    can dive at 10 - 14 days old

    at 30 days can swim out of lodge with parents
    usually wait until 2 months old

    if tired will climb on mom's back while swimming

    begin to try solid food .. mom and dad bring soft leaves into lodge
    after few months will eat soft bark
    still drink milk
    weaned from milk at 6 months old

    both mom and dad groom and bathe the kits
    older kits from previous litter live with parents
    older kits care for and defend younger newly born kits
    newly born kits receive almost constant attention

    first foods
    soft leaves . tender bark . aquatic plants . tiny twigs

    by summer .. weigh 10 - 15 pounds
    yearling weight 15 - 30 pounds
    full grown at 2 1/2 years old

    2nd summer beavers usually wander away .. come back in fall .. spend winter at home
    with mom and dad .. newly born little sibling kits ..

    3rd summer .. young adult beavers leave for good
    males leave first .. then females leave ..
    .. this is the only time for long distance moves
    young adult beavers are reproductively mature between 2nd and 3rd year
    young adult beavers will travel up to 30 miles from place of birth

    at this time will locate a mate

    stake out a home range
    create scent mounds
    build dam and lodge
 
   

    IT'S  A  FASCINATING  FACT   !

    A BEAVER'S TAIL IS NOT USED AS A TROWEL TO CARRY OR PACK MUD  !

    beavers do a lot of their work at night and on cloudy days !
    beavers do not hibernate in winter
    beavers do sleep a lot in winter
    beavers are active throughout winter

    beavers plunge into water to eliminate fluid and solid bodily wastes
    beavers never eliminate in lodge

    excellent swimmers

    beavers spend lot of time in water .. but actually spend more time on land


    can cut down a 10 inch wide  .. 30 feet tall cottonwood tree in 6 minutes

    always use everything that they cut down

    usually walk on land .. but can run

    when babies are tired of swimming .. mother beavers push them ahead in the water like floats

    beavers swim with just nose and eyes above water

    november is usually the busiest time of year for beavers

    super industrious animals

    beavers swim with their paws and arms stretched out in front of them
    to avoid collisions in the dark water
 

    ENVIRONMENTAL  CONTRIBUTION

    BEAVERS ARE A VITAL COMPONENT OF ECOSYSTEMS
    THEY ARE PRESERVERS OF ECOLOGY
    THEY ARE THE BEST FRIEND TO CONSERVATION AND AMELIORATION !!!


    BEAVERS ARE ..
    land managers . architects . engineers . contractors . carpenters . environmentalists . masons .
    water managers . wildlife managers . landscapers . ecologists . agriculturalist farmers

    when beavers create ponds .. trees that were living there .. die from the water ..
    these trees become homes and habitat for all sorts of insects birds mammals

    beavers are so beneficial and do no harm to anyone

    EVEN WHEN COHO SALMON TRAVEL UPSTREAM TO SPAWN .. DAMS DO NOT STOP THEM ..
    TIME OF COHO SPAWNING COINCIDES WITH TIME OF WINTER STORMS ..
    WINTER STORMS OPEN PLACES IN DAMS THAT SALMON GET THROUGH EASILY

    BIODIVERSITY ENABLER .. HUGE CONTRIBUTORS TO BIODIVERSITY
    CUT DOWN TREES .. SUNLIGHT IS ABLE TO ENTER AREA .. INCREASED SUNLIGHT ALLOWS ALL SORTS
    OF PLANTS TO DEVELOP .. INCREASED PLANT VARIETY ENHANCES BIODIVERSITY ..
    INCREASES ANIMAL LIFE ...

    SOMETIMES BEAVERS DO LEAVE THEIR LODGE AND POND ..
    EVENTUALLY DAM AND LODGE WILL FALL APART ..
    WATER LEVEL WILL DROP AND RICH SOIL WILL BE LEFT .. FLOWERS GROW ..
    ALL SORTS OF GRASSES .. THEY HAVE CREATED A BEAVER MEADOW .. FULL OF LIFE !!!


    THEIR PONDS ENCOURAGE ALL SORTS OF LIFE ..
    ANIMALS ..
    RACCOONS . LEOPARD FROGS . FROGS . TROUT . DEER . RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS . DUCKS
    HERONS . MUSKRATS . OTTERS . MOOSE . WEASELS . TURTLES . SALAMANDERS . CATFISH
    CRAYFISH . MONARCH BUTTERFLIES . BIRDS . DRAGONFLIES . GARTER SNAKES . GREBES .
    PLANTS ..
    TRILLIUMS . LILIES . MARSH MARIGOLD . CATTAILS

    beaver pond still water creates place for sediment from creek river stream to collect
    sediments help to enrich capability of pond to sustain underwater plant life
    plant life increases oxygen in pond
    oxygen creates rich environment for fish and for their food source

    sometimes after they fell a tree it is too big to be moved ..
    they eat all the bark and leave it ..
    it creates a dead log habitat
    certain species of fruit fly cannot live without the rotten log habitat

    some species of fish egg cannot develop in fast moving rivers ..
    their eggs get stuck to wild bird feathers ..
    birds travel to beaver ponds
    eggs get deposited in the pond and develop into fish


    no other animal including human does more for the environment than the beaver !
 

    HUMAN  INTERACTION

    WHEN EUROPEAN COLONISTS CAME TO NORTH AMERICA
    BEAVERS WERE DIURNAL DAY TIME DOERS
    BUT
    AFTER HORRIBLE HORRIBLE CONTACT AND EXPERIENCES WITH HUMANS IN THE EARLY 1600'S
    ..
    BEAVERS CHANGED TO BEING NOCTURNAL DOERS TO AVOID HUMANS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE !

    AMAZING !!!
    THIS IS UNHEARD OF !!  ANIMALS DO NOT CHANGE THEIR WAYS OF LIVING !!!
    EXCEPT FOR THE AMAZING BEAVER!!!


    1600'S - early 1900's .. beavers were almost EXTINCTED by humans !
    willfully without any regard for them at all
    by the unthinking ... uncaring actions of humans

    UNITED STATES AND CANADA CREATED AND PASSED LAWS
    TO PROTECT BEAVERS ..
    LAWS CREATED BY HUMANS
    TO PROTECT BEAVERS FROM HUMANS  ! !! ! ! !
 

    WORLD  STATUS

    40 - 80 MILLION BEAVERS LIVED WILD AND FREE IN NORTH AMERICA IN THE 1500'S ..
    BEFORE THE EUROPEANS ARRIVED

    BEAVER POPULATIONS ARE GREATLY GREATLY GREATLY REDUCED FROM WHAT THEY WERE
    BEFORE THEIR FIRST CONTACT WITH EUROPEAN COLONISTS

    BEAVERS ARE ALWAYS IN DANGER AND AT RISK
    FROM HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND TRAPS
 

    PROBLEMS

    THERE IS A MAJOR LACK OF KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
    ABOUT THE AMAZING AMAZING BENEFICIAL TO THE WORLD .. BEAVER   !!!!

    MANY HUMANS WANT TO LIVE ALONG WATERWAYS .. WHICH INTERFERES WITH BEAVERS ..
    BEAVERS MUST LIVE IN WATER
    HUMANS DO NOT NEED TO LIVE NEAR WATER

    HUMANS CONTINUE TO DEVELOP THE HABITAT OF WILD ANIMALS WITHOUT AWARENESS AND CONCERN
    FOR THE DISRUPTION TO ANIMAL'S LIVES ..
    HUMANS WANT TO LIVE IN BRAND NEW HOUSES IN BRAND NEW HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS ..

    because of human development  of wild places ..
    humans are in closer contact with already established beaver dams and homes ..
    beaver ponds sometimes increase in size  .. which floods surrounding areas
    human development interferes with beaver areas
    humans wrongly perceive this as beavers interfering with them !!!

    HUMANS HAVE TO RETHINK THEIR IDEAS ABOUT ANIMALS !!!!
 

    SOLUTIONS

    NO MORE TRAPS EVER !!!!

    CHILDREN AND PARENTS NEED TO DEMAND
    THAT CURRICULUM IN SCHOOLS BE BUILT AROUND ANIMALS !

    HUMANS COULD LIVE A BIT AWAY FROM NATURAL WATERWAYS THAT BEAVERS REQUIRE

    HUMANS COULD LEAVE ALL SORTS OF TRACTS OF LAND WITH WATERWAYS FOR BEAVERS TO LIVE

    HUMANS COULD CONSTRUCT THEIR OWN HUMAN-MADE WATER FEATURES ON THEIR PROPERTIES

    TO REDUCE WATER LEVEL WHERE FLOODING IS HAPPENING ..
    INSTALL BEAVER BAFFLER IN DAM ..
    THE BEAVER BAFFLER IS SYSTEM OF SUBMERGED METAL CAGED PLASTIC PIPES THAT GO THROUGH
    THE DAM .. LOWER WATER LEVEL WITH NO HARM TO BEAVERS
    the Humane Society of the United States can provide all the information about the beaver baffler


    HUMANS NEED TO LEARN AS MUCH AS THEY POSSIBLE CAN ABOUT THE AMAZING AMAZING BEAVER !
    KNOWLEDGE WILL LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING ..
    AND THAT WILL LEAD TO LOVE AND RESPECT FOR THESE AMAZING WONDERFUL INCREDIBLE BEAVER !
 
" Praise the LORD.
Let every creature praise His holy name
for ever and ever.
"
Psalm 145:21
 
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